Carbon-Carbon (C/C) Composites may be manufactured with different orientation of the reinforcing phase (carbon fibers): unidirectional structure, bi-directional structure (cloth made of multiple carbon fiber yarns), multi-directional structure (3D, 4D, 5D, etc.).
Multi-directional reinforcement provides maximum level of mechanical properties in the directions of the woven structure.
The simplest multi-directional reinforcement consists of 3D orthogonal structure woven of straight carbon fiber yarns.
Fabrication of Carbon-Carbon Composites by Chemical Vapor Deposition process results in higher (as compared to Liquid Phase Infiltration technique) Modulus of Elasticity and mechanical strength.
The main disadvantage of Carbon-Carbon Composites is their low oxidation resistance. Carbon materials react with Oxygen at temperatures above 900ºF (482ºC).
The following methods are used for oxidation protection of Carbon-Carbon Composites: