Molecule of ammonia (NH3) consists of one atom of Nitrogen (N) and three atoms of Hydrogen (H).The atoms in the molecule of ammonia are arranged in a form of a trigonal pyramid with the atom of nitrogen at the vertex. This arrangement determines high dipole moment of the molecule. Some chemical properties of ammonia (e.g. solubility in water) are explained by the polarity of its molecule.
Ammonia was first synthesized in 1774 by Joseph Priestley.
Molecular weight of ammonia is 17.03.
Gaseous ammonia is lighter than air therefore it does not pool indoors.
Ammonia has sharp pungent odor.
Ammonia forms alkaline solution in water (ammonium hydroxide):
NH3 + H2O = NH4OH
Gaseous ammonia may be easily transformed to liquid state either by cooling below the boiling point -28.03°F (-33.35°C) or by compression.
Vapor pressure of ammonia is 114 psi (786 kPa).
Ammonia is produced by the reaction between nitrogen and hydrogen in the presence of iron oxides as a catalyst (Haber-Bosch process):
N2 + 3H2 = 2NH3
The process achieves maximal productivity at temperatures in the range 750 - 1100°F (399 - 593°C) and at pressures in the range 200 - 400 atm.